Manish Kumar*, Nithya Shanthi, P.S. Rajnikanth and Arun Kumar Mahato Pages 248 - 270 ( 23 )
In the last few decades, researchers and pharmaceutical industries have been developing new approaches to overcome the solubility and bioavailability limits observed with poorly soluble drugs. With the advancement of nanotechnology, nanocrystals have emerged as a great potential to overcome these limitations. Nanocrystals owing to its ability to modify the physicochemical and biological properties of the drug have gained widespread attention among the research scientists. This review provides comprehensive detail on the associated advantages, challenges, factors affecting physicochemical properties, and optimization parameters about the stability of nanocrystals. In this review, the evolution of nanocrystals is discussed as first-generation simple nanocrystals, secondgeneration nanocrystals within a carrier, and third-generation surface-modified nanocrystals. It also provides a detailed account of various preparation methods and evaluation of surface-modified nanocrystals. In the proposed "King Design," nanocrystals of the third generation are placed on the top due to their advantage over other nanocarriers like high drug payload, site-specific delivery, improved activity, commercial manufacturing, and easy scale-up. Third generations nanocrystals can provide a novel therapeutic solution for the site-specific, targeted, and efficient delivery for treatment of various acute as well as chronic diseases with high stability and scale-up potential.
Modified nanocrystals, targeted delivery, surface grafting, 3rd generation nanocrystals, king design, scale-up potential.
Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh (India), Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science and Research, Balawala, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science and Research, Balawala, Dehradun, Uttarakhand