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Radiosensitization Induced by Ultra-stable PVA-coated Gold Nanoparticles: A Study with Fricke Dosimeter, Plasmid DNA and F98 Glioma Cells

[ Vol. 8 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Thititip Tippayamontri*, Minghan Shi, Benoit Paquette, Andrew Bass and Leon Sanche   Pages 121 - 134 ( 14 )

Abstract:


Background: When localized in cells, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) enhance absorption of ionizing radiation and hence biological damage. They have the potential to increase the efficiency of radiotherapy cancer treatment.

Objective: To investigate the dose enhancement and biomolecular radiosensitization induced by ultra-stable polyvinyl alcohol coated gold nanoparticle (PVA-GNPs).

Methods: The dose enhancement induced by PVA-GNPs was quantified by Fricke chemical dosimetry. The absorbed dose as a function of PVA-GNP concentration for irradiation with 80 and 100 kVp X-rays and 60Co γ-rays. The efficiency of PVA-GNPs to sensitize plasmid DNA to 80 kVp X-rays was measured by gel electrophoresis for a water solution of PVA-GNPs and DNA in a 1:1 ratio. Subcellular localization and the radiosensitization of PVA-GNPs in F98 glioma cells was performed.

Results: Under X-ray irradiation, the absorbed dose increased with PVA-GNP concentration. Average dose enhancements were 1.89 ± 0.14 and 2.25 ± 0.11 for 80 and 100 kVp X-rays, respectively, which led to an increase in DNA strand breaks and interduplex crosslinks. Conversely, no significant dose enhancement was found with 60Co γ-rays (P = 0.77). PVA-GNPs accumulated near the nuclear membrane and in vesicle-like structures in the cytoplasm, but did not localize in the nucleus. The induction of radioenhancement by 2-fold was observed when combined 500 nM PVA-GNPs with 4 Gy X-rays.

Conclusion: Radiosensitization by PVA-GNPs was observed under 80 and 100 kVp Xray irradiation. These results support the potential application of these highly stable nanoparticles to enhance the benefits of low-energy X-ray radiotherapy in cancer treatments.

Keywords:

Gold nanoparticles, polyvinyl alcohol, ionizing radiation, radiosensitivity, DNA, Fricke dosimeter.

Affiliation:

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok



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